The RusHydro Group of companies operates with electricity and capacity in the wholesale electricity and capacity market, as well as in the retail electricity and heat markets.
GENERAL INSTALLED CAPACITY AND ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION IN RUSSIAN AND IN THE WORLD
As to installed capacity and production volumes, the Russian energy industry ranks numbers five and four respectively in the world.
The installed capacity of powerplants in Russia as of December 31, 2016 totaled 244.1 GW that is 0.4 % more than in 2015 (243.2 GW). The growth in the installed capacity of Russia due to commissioning of new capacity in power plants and the modernization of the existing generating equipment totaled 361.58 MW.
The commissioning of new capacity in power plants of Russia in 2016 counting the power plants of industrial companies totaled 4,293.87 MW. Inefficient and obsolete generating equipment with total capacity of 3,879.16 MW was decommissioned.
In 2016 the energy consumption in Russia increased and totaled 1,054.54 billion kWh that is higher than the energy consumption of 2015 by 1.7 % (1,036.42 billion kWh in 2015).
One of the main factors that affected the change in consumption is the outside air temperature. In January 2016 the decrease in outdoor air temperature in Russia relative to the previous year by 4.6 degrees affected the increase in electricity consumption. The increase in consumption was also affected by the increase in electricity consumption by a number of industrial companies.
The structure of power generation by types of Russia power plants, %
The dynamics of changes in energy consumption and capacity by UES of Russia, 1991-2016
RusHydro Group is a supplier WECM
The RusHydro Group controls numerous Russian hydropower facilities and is active in the popularization of renewable energy sources. The Group is fully aware of the significance of the tasks it deals with, striving to continuously develop its performance and participating in Russia’s environmental and technological advances, while recognizing the Group’s high social responsibility. The Group currently controls 400 electric power facilities, including 71 hydropower plants, the Kislogubskaya power plant, the only tidal power generation facility in Russia, 3 geothermal power plants generating more than 90 % of the country’s geoheat, thermal power plants and retail companies.
The body of assets makes the RusHydro Group a unique generating company globally and the third largest company among the world’s hydropower companies (in terms of installed capacity).
The world’s major hydropower generating companies are controlled by the governments of their respective countries due to the strategic importance of the hydropower industry. Compared with the global peers, the RusHydro Group’s activities are characterized by the very complex climatic and landscape conditions and the widespread operational geography. The Group’s facilities are located all over the country ranging from Murmansk Region to the Primorie Region and from Chukotka to the Republic of Dagestan.
Furthermore, the Group is engaged in international operations managing the Sevan-Hrazdan Cascade of HPPs in Armenia. The continuous, reliable and safe operation of infrastructural facilities vital for the country with facilities separated by tens of thousands kilometers poses a Herculean task for Group employees, who have successfully dealt with these challenges striving to implement the Group’s Mission and Strategic Goals.
The RusHydro Group’s key competitive advantages
Installed capacity of the world’s major peer group companies in 2016, GW
Sources: PJSC RusHydro and competitor data
Foto: the replacement of the Votkinskaya HPP hydraulic power equipment.
THE RUSHYDRO GROUP’S MAJOR RUSSIAN COMPETITORS IN THE ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION SPHERE
Russian generating facilities are mostly concentrated in the several large holding companies.
The RusHydro Group’s main competitors on the power generation market include independent Russian utility companies formed as a result of RAO UES of Russia reform. The Group considers the use of renewable energy sources as one of its priorities and stably increases installed capacity by building new power plants and commissioning new power generation facilities.
Major competitors of PJSC RusHydro
Market share of Group on power generation in Russia, %
Market share of Group on rated capacity in Russia, %
Sources: The information was prepared on the basis of summary data on the group of PJSC RusHydro and the annual report of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation.
COMPETITORS AT THE ARMENIAN ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION MARKET
In 2011 PJSC RusHydro acquired 90 % of the Sevan-Hrazdan Cascade of HPPs shares with total capacity of 562 MW in Armenia. Thus the Group took the significant share of Armenian electric energy generation market.
Installed capacity of the Armenian market players, MW
RUSSIAN MARKETS OF ELECTRICITY AND CAPACITY
WECM price and non-price zones
1 – the first price zone;
2 – the second price zone;
3, 4, 5 – non-price zones and isolated power systems.
The wholesale electricity and capacity market within the territory of Russian Federation is divided into the wholesale electricity and capacity market (WECM) and retail markets (REM). According to the requirements of the legislation, all stations with installed capacity over 25 MW perform electricity sales on the WECM. Stations whose capacity is 5-25 MW can choose to operate either on WECM or on REM.
The wholesale electricity and capacity market participants are: generating companies, electricity export/import operators, electricity sales organizations, electric grid companies (in terms of acquiring electricity to cover transmission losses), big consumers. The wholesale electricity and capacity market functions in price and non-price zones.
The first price zone includes the territories of the European part of Russia and the Urals, while the second price zone includes Siberia. The WECM’s non-price zones include: the Arkhangelsk and Kaliningrad Regions, the Komi Republic and the territories of the Far East), where the capacity wholesale is realized on special terms. In the country territories not united in price and non-price zones only the rules of the retail electricity market operate.
In the wholesale electricity and capacity market there are several sectors that differ in terms of transaction and delivery terms:
The electricity and capacity wholesale price dynamics in 2016, rub./ MWh
The first price zone
2016, 1 quarter
In January the average prices of the DAM, compared with the same period in 2015 increased. The price rise is explained by a significant reduction in the price-taking offer of NPP and by the increase in price parameters in suppliers’ bids. In February-March average DAM prices compared with the same periods in 2015 decreased slightly. The decrease in prices is explained by the decrease in demand, taking into account the interflow between price zones against the backdrop of an increase in the supply including the price taking.
2016, 2 quarter
In April there was the decline in prices of the DAM in comparison with the same period in 2015. The decrease in prices is explained by the more significant, in comparison with the same month of the previous year, excess in the rate of decline in demand over the rate of decline in the price-accepting offer and offer at prices up to 1100 rub/MWh against the background of an increase in the average daily temperature and a relative increase in the flow to the first price zone from the second price zone. In May-June of 2016 there was the increase in the prices of the DAM compared to the same periods in 2015.
The price rise is explained by changes in the structure of the offer, as well as by systemic constraints that significantly influenced the formation of the DAM price in May and the delay in the rate of supply growth at prices below 1200 rub/MWh (the level of the DAM index in June 2015) from the rate of increase in aggregate demand taking into account the interflow between price zones with the result that the more expensive supplier bids in June had become price forming.
2016, 3 quarter
In July-September there was the increase in the prices of the DAM in comparison with the similar periods in 2015. The increase of the DAM index is due to the change in the structure of the offer, which is taking place against the backdrop of the growing demand, the significant reduction in the volume of the price-taking offer due to the decrease in the water availability of the planned HPP production (decrease in inflows Fof the Volga and Kama rivers), the decrease due to the planned repairs of power units of NPP development. In addition, the increase in demand led to the fact that a more expensive supply of TPPs had relevance.
2016, 4 quarter
In October there was the decline in prices of the DAM in relation to October 2015, which was mainly due to the growth in the supply of NPP, which exceeded the reduction in the price levels of HPPs and TPPs. In November there was the increase in the prices of the DAM in relation to November 2015 mainly due to the fact that the increase of the price offers up to 1,200 rub/MW h did not fully compensate for the growth in demand. The additional factor that influenced the growth of prices of the DAM was the repair of lines that provide electrical communications to the UES of the Center, UES of the Volga and UES of the South.
In December there was the increase in the prices of the DAM in relation to December 2015, which was due to the increase in prices in the UES of the South, which took place against the background of the excess of demand growth taking into account the interflow between price zones relative to the growth in supply. The increase in prices in the UES of the South by 26 % was caused, among other things, by the decrease in the average air temperature by 5.7° C and, as a result, the demand increased.
The second price zone
2016, 1 quarter
The price rise of the DAM in January-February was mainly due to the increase in price parameters in the suppliers’ bids.
The decline in the prices of the DAM in March 2016 was due to a reduction in demand with the increase in supply and almost all the volume of supply growth fell on the «cheap» electricity of the HPP.
The decline in the prices of the DAM in April was due to the increase in the price-taking offer and offer at prices below 800 rub/MWh with almost unchanged demand. The applications of more «cheap» generators became price forming due to the temporary reduction in the maximum admissible flow between the eastern and western parts of Siberia, as well as due to the increase in the supply of HPPs and the decrease in the supply of TPPs.
The growth of prices of the DAM in May 2016 was due to the excess of the growth rate of demand over the rate of supply growth, as well as to the reduction of the maximum permissible cross-over over section 100152 Ekibastuz-Ural (to the Urals). The decline of the DAM prices in June compared to June 2015 was due to the excess of the supply growth rate over the growth rate of demand while the growth price offers up to 700 rub/ MWh was commensurate with the increase in demand taking into account the interflow between price zones.
The decline of the DAM prices in July relative to July 2015 is due to the excess of the supply growth rate at prices of up to 700 rub / MWh over the rate of growth of the flow from the price zone with constant demand. In July 2016 there were periods when zero or close to zero prices were formed in a number of regions which is mainly due to repairs. The decline of the DAM prices in August compared to August 2015 is due to the significant increase in the aggregate supply in the price zone outstripping the growth of the flow from the price zone with a practically unchanged volume of the demand.
The water flowto the dams of the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Krasnoyarskaya HPPs, which increased by 18 % compared to the hydrological norm, and the commissioning of the 500 kV HV line Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP-Novokuznetskaya in 2015 linking the power systems of Khakassia and Kuzbass led to a significant increase in supply HPP and, as a result, the growth of the aggregate supply in August 2016. The fall in the prices of the DAM in September relative to September 2015 except for the increase in the number of hours to reach the maximum permissible overflow in the system-forming sections within the price zone of Siberia was due to the decrease in demand taking into account the interflow between price zones and the growth of the aggregate supply in the price zone.
In October the decline of the DAM prices for electricity compared to October 2015 is due to the significant excess of supply growth including price taking in comparison with the growth in demand. In addition, an important factor contributing to the decline of the DAM index in Siberia was the expansion of the repairing campaign and the deterioration of the capacity compared to October of the previous year, both in cross sections between price zones and within the zone of Siberia. In November the growth in prices of the DAM for electricity compared to November 2015 was due to the change in the price structure of the offer.
The overall improvement in the throughput capacity of Siberia’s backbone networks contributed to a leveling of prices which led to the increase in the price of the DAM on the average in the price zone. In December relative to December 2015 the growth in prices of the DAM for electricity was due to the reduction in the volume of the price-taking offer and, consequently, the reduction in supply at prices of up to 900 rub/ MWh, the rate of decline of which exceeded the rate of demand reduction taking into account the interflow between price zones.
ELECTRICITY AND CAPACITY SALES TARIFFS IN 2016
Tariffs for stations-subjects of the WECM were established by the Federal Anti-Monopoly Service of Russia (hereinafter – FAS Russia), in accordance with the developed methods of the Federal Tariff Service (hereinafter – FTS of Russia) (abolished in 2015, the assignee is the FAS Russia).
The main methodology for calculating tariffs in stations was the Indexing methodology approved by the Order of the Federal Tariff Service of Russia from 28.08.2014 No. 210-e/1 «About the Approval of the Formulas for indexation of regulated prices (tariffs) for electricity (capacity) used in contracts for the sale and purchase of electricity (capacity), the order of application, and also the procedure of setting planned and actual indicators used in these formulas».
The base, calculated in 2007, is indexed annually using the index of changes in conditionally fixed expenses, defined by the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia. The index-deflator in the tariff of 2016 was 7.4 % – at the level of PPI (including without FECM). The method is also applied to new stations, starting from the second year of operation of the plant, for CSA-objects it is used only in the part of electricity.
Major legislative changes
Amendments were made to clause 62 of RF Government Decree No. 1172 of 27.12.2010, according to which binding on RC is not carried out at stations below 25 MW, as well as in pumped storage power plants, which enables hydroelectric power plants Sengeleevskaya HPP, Svistukhinskaya HPP, Egorlykskaya HPP-2, Zaramagskaya HPP – Head Hydropower Plant of the Ardonsky Cascade, Dzaudzhikauskaya HPP, Gizeldonskaya HPP, as well as PSPs to operate fully in the free electricity (capacity) market.
FECM). The method is also applied to new stations, starting from the second year of operation of the plant, for CSA-objects it is used only in the part of electricity.
For CSA-objects the price for capacity is calculated by the FAS Russia in accordance with the methodology approved by the Order of the FTS from 13.10.2010 No. 486-e «About the approval of the Procedure for defining the price for the capacity of new nuclear and hydroelectric power plants (including pumped storage power plants)».
Reasons for WECM tariffs growth:
THE WORK ON RETAIL ELECTRICITY MARKETS
The work on REM in price zones is carried out under free bilateral contracts with consumers (stations less than 5 MW on a mandatory basis, stations from 5 to 25 MW at will). There is no regulation of tariffs in this market sector. The energy is sold according to contract prices.
The work in isolated areas of the REM is carried out by the generating companies of PJSC RusHydro subsidiaries. For them 100 % regulation operates due to the lack of a free electricity (capacity) market.
The tariffs for stations-entities of isolated REM zones are set by regional authorities in the field of tariff regulation (hereinafter referred to as the Regulator), in
accordance with the developed methods of the FTS of Russia:
The choice of the method of regulation is proposed to the regulated organization but always remains at the discretion of the Regulator.
In 2016 tariff campaign the growth of tariffs above the deflator index was achieved for the subjects of the REM, which produce power at HPPs and GPPs and are regulated by the method of economically justified costs.
RUSHYDRO’S DAM AND CCA PRICE DYNAMICS
In 2016 for PJSC RusHydro HPPs located in the second price zone the selling price of the DAM zone increased due to a combination of various factors, including due to the general increase in prices of DAM in the second and third quarters due to the decrease in the price-taking offer of the HPP (due to the decrease in the water availability of planned HPP production), due to the decrease in production of NPP (due to scheduled repairs of power units) and due to the increase in the volumes of more expensive TPP supply.
For PJSC RusHydro HPPs located in the second price zone, the selling price in the DAM decreased as a whole. The main reasons were the increased influx of Siberian rivers, the expansion of the repairing campaign and the deterioration of the network capacity, both in cross sections between price zones and within the zone of Siberia.
The increase in the price for the capacity sales at the CCA for HPPs of the second price zone is due to the «liberalization» of the capacity market for HPPs from 01.05.201623.
Price rate dynamics DAM and CCA
DAM price dynamics*, RUB/MWh
CCA price dynamics*, RUB/MW month.
PLANS FOR 2017
In accordance with the plans of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, the Scheme and the program for the development of the Unified Energy System of Russia for 2016-2022 approved by the Order of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation No. 147 of 01.03.2016, based on the analysis of the Investment Program and the business plan of PJSC RusHydro it is expected that:
FAR EAST ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY FEATURES
Electricity market model in the non-price zone of the Far East
The development of the Far East is one of the highest priorities of the state. For its solution the Federal Target Program for the Development of the Region has been developed and the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East has been created.
In the energy sector of the region the situation is complicated by the presence of state regulation of tariffs for heat and electricity. The retiring capacities need to be replaced. The construction of new stations is necessary to improve the reliability of the region’s energy supply and to contain growth of tariffs. The management of energy companies operating in the regions of the Far Eastern Federal District in all sectors of the electric power industry – the production of electric and heat, their transfer and sale is carried out by RAO ES EAST, PJSC that is part of the RusHydro Group.
Investment projects aimed at developing the energy infrastructure of the Far East are priority for the RusHydro Group.
Share of WEM sales
RAO ES EAST, PJSC operates in the territory of non-price zones and isolated energy systems of the Far Eastern Federal District in accordance with the tariff decisions approved by the state federal executive bodies (FTS of Russia – up to 21.07.2015, after 21.07.2015 – FAS Russia) and by the executive government bodies of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation in the field of state regulation of tariffs (hereinafter – the regional authorities) in accordance with the principles of pricing and rules of state regulation of tariffs for electric and heat in Russia.
The companies of the RAO ES EAST Holding carry out the following types of regulated activities:
Statutory tariff regulation
The RusHydro Group presents in the heat generation market through the activities of RAO ES EAST Holding. The subsidiary companies of the Holding are participants of retail heat markets in their territories. The sale of heat according to the legislation of the Russian Federation is a fully regulated activity.
The installed thermal capacity of RAO ES EAST power plants subsidiaries as of 31.12.2016 amounted to 18,133.131 Gcal/h and increased by 160.6 Gcal/h in 2016. The main influence on the change in thermal power was provided by the following factors:
Installed capacity of power plants in 2014-2016, Gcal/h.
PRODUCTION AND TRANSMISSION OF HEAT
The heat output of power plants and boiler-houses of power companies of RAO ES EAST, PJSC Group in the Far Eastern Federal District in 2016 amounted to 31,494.2 thousand Gcal which is 3.6 % more than in 2015. The increase in heat supply in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the Amur and Sakhalin regions, the Khabarovsk, Primorsky and Kamchatka regions is associated with a lower outdoor air temperature in the first and fourth quarters of 2016 than in 2015.
Heat output by power plants and boiler-houses in 2014-2016, thousand Gcal
The amount of heat losses in heat networks in 2016 amounted to 7,614.9 thousand Gcal (23.9 % in relation to the release of heat to the grid). Relative losses at the level of previous years: the increase of 0.3 % compared to 2015 and compliance with the level of losses in 2014.
The release of heat into the grid and the loss of heat by RAO ES EAST, PJSC Group subsidiaries
Dynamics of tariffs for heat for end consumers, rub/Gcal
Dynamics of average tariffs, NGP, thousand rubles
HEAT SALES MARKET
In 2016 the actual productive heat supply in total for the RAO ES EAST, PJSC Group subsidiaries amounted to 23,442.0 thousand Gcal which is higher than the index of 2015 by 670.1 thousand Gcal. Revenues amounted to 46,248.8 million rubles and exceeded the index of 2015 by 4,299.2 million rubles.
The receipt of cash for the implemented heat in 2016 amounted to 44,183.2 million rubles which is higher than in 2015 by 4,305.6 million rubles. The level of payments to revenue in 2016 was 95.5 %.
The main share in the structure of productive supply is accounted for by the population, HOAs.
HBCs, managing companies and accounts for 59.1 % of total consumption. As of 31.12.2011 the debt of consumers for heat was 15,948.9 million rubles. The main share in the structure of accounts receivable is occupied by the population with HOAs, HBCs and Managing companies – 77.7 % of the total debt.
The following factors influenced the growth of the productive heat supply by 670.1 thousand Gcal in comparison with the year 2015: the decrease in the outdoor air temperature relative to the fact of the previous year, the increase in the duration of the heating season 2015-2016, and the earlier start of the heating season 2016-2017.
The cash inflow for heat released in 2016 amounted to 44,183.2 million rubles which is 4,305.6 million rubles higher than in 2015. The payment to revenue ratio in 2016 was 95.5 % which is higher than in 2015 by 0, 4 %.
Heat sales in 2014-2016
Generating facilities of RusHydro Group
As for 01.01.2016 the installed capacity for the PJSC RusHydro Group was 38,652 MW. During 2016 the total installed capacity increased by 216.1 MW and as for 31.12.2016 it was 38,868.1 MW.
The growth of installed capacity inPJSC RusHydro branches (comparing with previous year) happened due to equipment remarking: Novosibirskaya HPP – by 5.0 MW; Kamskaya HPP – by 3.0 MW; Zhigulevskaya HPP – by 42.0 MW; Volzhskaya HPP – by 10.5 MW; Saratovskaya HPP – by 6.0 MW.
Besides, due to the commissioning of new hydroelectric power plants at the Zelenchukskaya HPP-PSPP of the branch of PJSC RusHydro – Karachay-Cherkessia Branch (140.0 MW) and Zaragizhskaya HPP transferred under the lease agreement to the branch of PJSC RusHydro – Kabardino-Balkaria Branch (30.6 MW).
In 2016 the electricity output of RusHydro Group amounted to 138.8 billion kWh which is 16.6 % higher than in 2015 and 11.6 % higher than planned. The increase in production is due to the actual hydrological conditions that developed during the reporting period and caused by high inflow to the reservoirs of Siberia and of the Far East. According to the Hydrometeorological Center of Russia the increase in inflow from the mean annual values was 12 and 57 % respectively.
The RusHydro Group was always first in the rating of installed capacity among Russian power suppliers. The implemented investment program gives grounds to expect it to maintain its leading position.
Installed capacity*, MW
Dynamics of electricity generation of RusHydro Group, million kWh
Dynamics of productive supply
of electric power of RusHydro Group, million kWh
For 2016 net sales of electricity and capacity by branches of PJSC RusHydro which takes into account the purchase of electricity and capacity costs amounted to 107,227.3 million rubles.
The main factors that influenced the increase in revenue from the sale of electricity and capacity:
PJSC RusHydro net revenue changes, million RUB
Revenues in the DAM occupy the first position in the structure of the electricity sales revenues of the branches of PJSC RusHydro. Thereby, its share grew from 81.9 % to 91.4 % (+ 17.7 %) in 2016 against the decrease of sales as per free bilateral contracts (FBC) by 99 % and the slight increase in sales volume of electricity in the balancing market (BM) by 1.8 %.
Electricity sales structure and dynamics of PJSC RusHydro, million RUB
The main part of revenue from sales of capacity by the branches of PJSC RusHydro is formed by contracts signed within the CCA. Following the results 2016 the share of such contracts decreased from 55.2 to 51.4 % (+ 5.0 % in value terms) against the backdrop of growth in sales under free capacity sale and purchase contracts (FCSPC) from 4.3 % to 9.35 %. The conclusion of the FCSPA is due to the need to improve the payment discipline at the WECM.
As a result of these agreements the share of defaulters is reduced for the capacity sold within the CPA, thereby increasing the overall level of payment for the delivered capacity. Also sales of new NPPs and HPPs under capacity sales and purchase contracts increased by 57.8 % due to the beginning of work at the WECM of Gotsatlinskaya HPP since October 2015.
Capacity sales structure and dynamics of PJSC RusHydro, million RUB
3.2 Operations and Procurement Management